Sunday, May 24, 2020
In the United States, there are over one hundred thousand people on the waiting list to receive a life-saving organ donation, yet only one out of four will ever receive that precious gift (Statistics Facts, n.d.). The demand for organ donation has consistently exceeded supply, and the gap between the number of recipients on the waiting list and the number of donors has increased by 110% in the last ten years (OReilly, 2009). As a result, some propose radical new ideas to meet these demands, including the selling of human organs. Financial compensation for organs, which is illegal in the United States, is considered repugnant to many. The solution to this ethical dilemma isnÃ¢â¬â¢t found in a wallet; there are other alternatives availableÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They conclude that Ã¢â¬Å"research shows that the underlying motivation of most paid kidney donors is povertyÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"paid kidney donation is associated with depression, regret, and discriminationÃ¢ â¬ (The State of the International Organ Trade, 2007). In other words, throwing money at the poor in exchange for their organs will not get them out of poverty. Offering a financial incentive program for organ donation will allow the rich to exploit the poor and deprive the poor from life-saving donation. The demand for organs will likely remain higher than the supply; therefore, prices for organs will become competitive and eliminate the chance for the poor to receive a transplant. Implementing financial compensation would only serve to shift the demographic of organ recipients away from those with the greatest need to those with the greatest wealth. Proponents of financial compensation for organ donors argue that itÃ¢â¬â¢s legal to be paid for donating reproductive material, and they suggest that organs should be handled in the same manner. The obvious difference, however, is that inability to conceive a child isnÃ¢â¬â¢t life-threatening. Healthy organs for transplan t are limited, and recipients must be carefully selected to ensure that the transplant is successful. Imagine the moral chaos that would ensue if organs were sold to the highest bidder. Instead of focusing attention on the sale of human organs, resources would best be spent considering more ethicalShow MoreRelated How Can We Encourage Organ Donation? Essay1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow Can We Encourage Organ Donation? Ã Ã Ã Ã Thousands of people die each year in the United States alone waiting for organ transplants. In 1997 the United States Department of Health and Human Services reported that 56,716 people were waiting for hearts, lungs, pancreases, and kidneys. By 1998 this number had increased to 64,423 people waiting (Charatan). The list of those people in need of transplants increases almost twenty percent every year while the number of donors increases onlyRead MoreBenefits Of Organ Donation For Organs1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageseach year due to organ complications; however, donating organs has become widely popular in the medical field to help save hospitalized people. Organ donation is a process in which a healthy individual gives up a working organ to an ailing person in need. A person in decent health can be qualified to donate a kidney, liver, or various other organs. In some cases organ donors are deceased but the donors already planned to donate their organs. Both the perso n searching for an organ and the donor haveRead MoreOrgan Donation1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCompensation for Organ Donation Many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives come to an end earlier than expected. When this happens, families mourn the loss of the loved one. However, do people mourn the loss of another life if the individual is not an organ donor? The National Kidney Foundation believes that Ã¢â¬Å"legalizing payments of human organsÃ¢â¬ should continue to be opposed, as codified in the third title of the National Organ Transplant Act. (National Kidney Foundation 220). If this title is changed, then there willRead MoreOrgan Donation Essay1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFinancial Compensation for Organ Donors Should organ donors get compensation for giving their organs to somebody else? Organ donors should get compensation because they are giving away their own organs to someone they may not even know or even met. They also have to deal with the medical expenses for getting their organ removed which shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be necessary because they are helping save someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. They are also giving up something that belongs to them for the benefit of someone else, which theyRead MoreIs It Time For Rethinking America s Organ Transplant Law?1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCarol Lee English 1B Professor Gurnett 27 January 2015 Is It Time to Reevaluate America s Organ Transplant Law? A woman sitting in a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office blankly stares at the wall in complete disbelief; she is frozen, motionless, trying to comprehend and process the wretched news that had just been disclosed to her. The doctor waits one minute before he begins talking again, and then informs her that she will be needing a kidney transplant. He places her on the waiting list behind thousands ofRead MorePersuasive Essay On Organ Donation1371 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrgans found on the black market are often taken from the body of an unwilling victim. People going about their business abducted and violated to make some extra cash, which could be obtained legally if compensation for donors were legal. In 2005, about one thousand two hundred people died waiting for a kidney transplant, something that could have been prevented if only there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t an organ shortage. The shortage of organs can be tied to the financial devastation that organ donors often succumbRead MoreThe Current Organ Donat ion System1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor an organ donation. That is six people every hour, 144 every day, and 1008 every week. Approximately 120 thousand people need an organ transplant to survive. Of all of those people, only 79 thousand people are on an active wait list, while only 20 thousand transplantations have been completed this year. There are not enough donors to meet the current organ demand, and of those that do donate organs, the costs incurred by the donor do not equal the benefits. The current organ donation system operatesRead MoreLegalizing The Sale Of Human Organs1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesincreasing need of organs for medical treatment, illegal organ black markets become more rampant. Under such circumstances, should the government legalize the sale of living human organs? In Joanna MacKayÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Organ Sales Will Save Lives, after analyzing from both receiversÃ¢â¬â¢ and donorsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives deliberately, she makes her own credibility to conclude that since there are potential donors and potential sellers that have a strong eager to trade kidneys, legalizing the sale of human organs would bringRead MoreGovernment Compensation For Organ Donation1371 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGovernment Compensation for Organ Donation From an early age, I knew that I would be an organ donor, and when I turned sixteen I began participating in blood drives at my high school. Donating blood became routine, something that my husband and I continue to do together. The reason behind why I donate blood is because it would be quite selfish of me to deny someone, even a complete stranger the gift of life when I am fully capable of giving it. However, the sad reality is that many Americans chooseRead MoreThe Current State Of Organ Transplantation1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn 2009, there were 154,324 patients on the waiting list for an organ in the United States. Because of the lack of availability of organs, the grim reality is that only 18% received a transplant and 25 patients per day died while still on the waiting list. To alleviate this situation, a nationwide policy of compensation and incentives for organ donation will be implemented. The problems plaguing the current state of organ transplantation are more multidimensional than numbers. Issues are present
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
DECOMPRESSIVE CRANIECTOMY FOR MALIGNANT MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY INFARCTION INTRODUCTION Stroke represents a public health issue that is affecting both developed and developing countries. A lot money and time have been invested in attempts to improve outcome in these patients. The majority of patients are treated with medical management. There are however few patients in which an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can lead to progressive edema, mass effect and herniation of the brain. As a consequence of this progressive rise in intracranial pressure surgical decompression of the cranium is often considered creating a role for the neurosurgeon in the management of stroke patients. I will present a case of a young boy with an underlying predisposing factor who presented with malignant progression of an MCA infarct, that required surgical intervention. CASE A 14 year old boy presented to the Accident and Emergency department of the Kingston Public Hospital with a history of acute left sided weakness. He was known to have sickle cell disease with the HbSS genotype. He had previously presented with a stroke and had residual right sided weakness. There was no history of headaches fever, vomiting, chest or joint pain. He was admitted to the medical ward where treatment was instituted. On admission he had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 15 with grade 2 power (MRC) in the upper limbs and grade 3 (MRC) in the lower limbs. Radiological investigations wereShow MoreRelatedComplications Of Brain Surgery860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstudies have drawn conclusions between certain patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ characteristics and their prognosis. Ã¢â¬Æ' References Arac, A., Blanchard, V., Lee, M., Steinberg, G. K. (2009). Assessment of outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in patients older than 60 years of age. Neurosurgical Focus, 26(6). doi:10.3171/2009.3.focus0958 Ban, S. P., Son, Y., Yang, H., Chung, Y. S., Lee, S. H., Han, D. H. (2010). Analysis of complications following decompressive craniectomyRead MoreInternational Classification of Diseases Coding Ii10064 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesparents carried the sickle-cell gene. O. The code for sickle-cell disease should be assigned. P. The patient received the sickle-cell gene from only one parent and is a carrier of the trait. 5. How should hemorrhagic disorder due to treatment with anticoagulants like Coumadin or heparin be coded? Q. D68.318 R. D68.32 and T45.515A S. D68.318 and T45.515A T. D68.32 6. A patient was admitted for lower gastrointestinal bleeding that is secondary to recurrentRead MoreUnit 2 study guide8637 Words Ã |Ã 35 Pagesand posture? Emotions and behavior are controlled by the hypothalamus (p.455) The cerebellum is responsible for maintaining balance and posture (p.455) The reticular formation is essential for maintaining wakefulness and in conjunction with the cerebral cortex is referred to as the reticular activating system (p.450) The Broca speech area is rostral to the inferior edge of the premotor area on the inferior frontal gyrus. It is usually on the left hemisphere and is responsible for the motor aspectsRead MoreCase Study Essay33967 Words Ã |Ã 136 Pagesdischarged from the hospital for exacerbated HF. Comprehensive patient education starting at admission is considered a standard of care and is mandated by The Joint Commission when providing care to hospitalized patients. The goal of the discharge treatment plan is to facilitate successful patient selfmanagement, minimize symptoms, and prevent readmission. CASE STUDY PROGRESS During the admission interview, the nurse makes a list of the medications M.G. took at home. Ã¢â" Chart View Nursing Assessment:Read MoreHesi Practice31088 Words Ã |Ã 125 Pagesthe knees are flexed. C. Atrophy of the lower leg muscles. D. Positive Homans sign. 7. A client has approached the nurse asking for advice on how to deal with his alcohol addiction. The nurse should tell the client that the only effective treatment for alcoholism is A. psychotherapy. B. total abstinence. C. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). D. aversion therapy. 8. A 23-month-old child is brought to the emergency department with suspected croup. Which assessment finding reflects increasing respiratoryRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words Ã |Ã 1422 PagesParagraph 575 Graphing Calculator Explorations 580 11 Comparing Two Populations or Treatments 583 11.1 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples 583 11.2 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Paired Samples 606 11.3 Large Sample Inferences Concerning a Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Proportions 619 11.4 Interpreting and Communicating the Results of Statistical Analyses
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
If I am asked, Ã¢â¬Å"What besides the true belief do you need in order to have knowledge?Ã¢â¬ I would answer that in order to have knowledge I need good reasons besides true belief. Those reasons should be able to provide enough evidences that would put the belief beyond any reasonable doubt and should be aligned to the capacity of my senses. Thus, in my idea, I can have knowledge only when it becomes a Ã¢â¬Ëproperly grounded, true beliefÃ¢â¬â¢. We will write a custom essay sample on My perception on Knowledge, Belief and Evidence or any similar topic only for you Order Now When a question like Ã¢â¬Å"When do you have good reason for doubting that a proposition is true?Ã¢â¬ arises, I would answer that I could have good reason for doubting a proposition to be true, when I would have justifiable evidence challenging that proposition, to the extent of providing good reasons for not believing the proposition in question. In my view, a proposition should not have any equally potent counterpoints (i.e., credible and aligned to my senses) towards establishing its truth. And if some asks me, Ã¢â¬Å"Is faith a source of knowledge?Ã¢â¬ My answer will be, Ã¢â¬Å"No, Faith is not a source of knowledge to me. It is a choice of belief without any reasoning supported by evidence. It cannot be the source of knowledge, because I cannot make something true by believing it to be true. At best, Faith is something that I can induce onto someone under the parameters of human behavior to get a desired result Ã¢â¬â which, again, is dependent on belief backed by reasoning enriched with evidence.Ã¢â¬ Ends How to cite My perception on Knowledge, Belief and Evidence, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Bank Specific and Dynamic Determinants. Answer: Introduction: The overall assessment is focused on delivering the changing financial regulations, which has evolved over the period for the banking sector. The assessment also focuses on detecting the current capital based regulatory system that is used for the banking industry has relatively helped in improving the level of business, which is conducted by banks. The significance and effect of the regulations on the operations of the banking system is evaluated, which could relatively help in understanding the systematic risk and returns generated by the banks. The major changes made in capital regulation directly allow banks to conduct adequate business, which is conducted ethically. Evolution of capital regulations is relatively conducted in the assessment, which allows the detection of relevant effects on banking operations. The proposition of capital regulations that has restricted the returns of banks is evaluated in the assessment. Furthermore, the effect of capital regulations on the lendin g process of banks is evaluated post-global financial crisis era. This overall evaluation relatively helps in detecting whether Banking Regulation are Countercyclical. The analysis of banking operations before and after the financial crisis relatively helps in understanding the overall regulations that was conducted on banks. This evaluation of regulatory system would eventually help in understanding the financial condition of banks and their ability to generate revenue from operations. Furthermore, adequate evaluation on capital regulations is conducted with its overall evolution, which regulates Financial Institutions and banks to conduct adequate businesses in the current market. Consider the evolution of capital regulation and the review the current capital based regulatory system and evaluate the effect regulation has had on banking operations, systemic risk, and bank returns: The evolution of capital regulations has effectively conducted over the previous fiscal yes years, where different types of regulations of past to control and the overall systematic risk involved in banking operations. The evolution of the regulation relatively increased or started after the financial crisis, which mainly portrayed the loopholes in the current capital regulation system. Moreover, these economic regulations were held to increase the control on banks that were greedy enough to ignore their capacity and incur more debt than required. Capital regulations has relatively improved from Basel I to Basel III, which relatively helps in reducing the overall occurrence of second financial crisis due to the greediness of banks. The current Basel III regulations are mainly based on the international capital standard for banks, which helps in assessing the different levels of risk involved in investments. Therefore, with the help of Basel III the overall reduction in risk from inve stments are conducted, which was previously not present in the banking regulations. On the contrary, Bruno and Shin (2015) argued that with the implementation of more strict capital regulations banks are still able to increase their operations by acquiring more risk, while increasing the chance of default. Berger et al. (2016) further stated that the control measures conducted on Financial Institutions relatively restrict the banking sector to conduct business, which might directly hamper the overall capital regulation system of the country. The focus of the changes on capital regulations was mainly conducted to increase banks equity capital requirements, which was previously not present and increase the overall risk of the banks. Moreover, the non-fulfillment of relevant just assessment, which was not conducted by Basel I was mainly supported by Basel II. Basel II was mainly used for assessing different types of risk for assets, which relatively helped Bank to reduce their risk from operations and conduct ethical business. However, Basel II was updated to Basel III, which relatively comprised all the regulations that needs to be followed by banks while conducting business. These capital regulations are a reflection of the conclusion that was drawn from financial crisis, where the banks became fragile due to the low capital regulations implemented in their operations. The progress and evolution of the capital regulations was mainly triggered by the financial crisis, where the actual loopholes in the capital regulations i dentified. Hilscher and Raviv (2014) stated that with the implementation of Basel II the overall unethical measures that could be conducted by banks for increasing their profits would reduce substantial, which help in protecting the depositors money in case of cash stagnation. The changes in capital regulations relatively help in improving the overall measures and structure of banks for the period. Before the financial crisis the overall requirements for the banks to hold cash, reserves were relatively low, which boosted the banks to increase their capacity to generate higher Returns. However, after evaluating the mistakes that was conducted during and before the financial crisis adequate changes in the capital standards were conducted. The evolution on the Minimum capital requirements that needs to be followed by the banks to conduct the operation relatively produced the possibility of future financial crisis. The changes in minimum common equity capital, capital conservation buffer, minimum Tier 1 capital, minimum total capital and countercyclical buffer regime was a relatively changed from 2013 to 2018, where the overall projections of the changes are also depicted. This relatively indicates the overall progress evolution on the capital regulations that was imposed on banks post financial crisis. Berger, Kick and Schaeck (2014) mentioned that with the changes in capital regulations the operations conducted by banks became more prominent and riskless, which eventually help in strengthening the financial sector and minimizing the chance of another financial crisis. The relevant changes in capital standard have been implemented by Basel III, which would eventually help banks to reduce their overall risk. Moreover, the current capital base regulatory system relatively falls under Basel III, Tier 1 and Tier 2 ratios, which needs to be conducted by banking companies to improve the level returns in comparison to risk. In addition, the method would eventually help in supporting the current capital based regulatory system used by the banks (Jimenez et al. 2014). The implementation of Basel III relatively restricts the banks to go beyond their ability to support their operations for generating high returns. Moreover, Minimum requirements are needed by banks to fulfill conduct business in the presence of capital regulations without which they would not be provided with the license to continue their operations. The minimum regulation is mainly implemented by Basel III, which is continuously changing to Increase new safety and soundness regulation such as new standards for capital and advantage of banks (Dell'Ariccia, Laeven and Suarez 2017). The evolution in minimum capital requirements relatively portrays the changing perception of policymakers regarding the financial stability risk of those, which could hamper operations of the bank. The current capital regulations are to minimize this is taking capability of banks, as previously it leads to the financial crisis and cash stagnation. The regulations imposed on the banking system have relatively affected their operational capability, while changing the systematic risk and return that it could generate from operations. The restrictions laid down by the capital regulatory system has mainly reduced the overall operational capability of banks, which directly helps in reducing the risk involved in operations. The systematic risk is mainly incurred due to the decision that is made by banks onto the relevant Investments, which were relatively increases when banks tend to increase the accumulation of risk to generate higher returns. The current capital based regulatory system has a relatively helped and improving the operations of the bank while reducing systematic risk (Laeven, Ratnovski and Tong 2016). Banks now provide loans with a proper Understanding of the disk attributes that is in Gulf in providing loans to a certain individual. This relatively helps in reducing the overall chances of cash stagnation and losses fr om operations. The capital regulatory system has been the minimizing the banking operations to the level which was needed to sustain the financial market. However, this relatively reduced the systematic risk for the banking sector, while declining its actual Returns. The main problems that occurred with the implementation of capital regulatory systems were the production in returns generated by banks. Banks were not able to increase their systematic risk to generate high returns, which reduced the profits generated by banks. In this context, Dell?Ariccia, Laeven and Marquez (2014) stated that with low systematic risk banks could adequately their operations in the financial market, while reducing the chances of cash stagnation the current regulations are still evolving to support the overall banking system, while reducing their high risk-taking capability. Therefore, more changes in the minimum requirement capital and other attributes laid down by Basel III are being conducted improve the banking system. The overall systematic risk involved in operations of the bank has a relatively reduced after the financial crisis, where the banks provided loans to anyone for increasing the returns on investment. The slow systematic risk has a relatively reduce d the return generation capacity of banks in the current era. Evaluate the proposition that capital regulations have restricted return and whether regulation is reduced to the operations of banks: There are many reasons behind the restriction that is imposed by capital regulations on banks, as it directly helps in reducing the problems that might arise in future. There are segmented reasons behind the need of adequate regulations for controlling banks or they might conduct operations to generate higher returns from investment. There were significant habits of the Banks, which would be identified as the most problematic condition faced by capital regulator. From the evaluation, it could be detected that banks have a tendency to take on higher risk for achieving or enhancing their profits, which relatively increases the risk from investment. Without regulations, banks would only focus on creating enhancing the profit while taking on more risk with the capital that is provided by depositors. Moreover, the regulation also imposed due to the private incentive that is made by bankers for conducting operations. The bankers tend to increase the compensation and incentives, while condu cting business, which is not adequate according to the regulations. Likewise, the bank use clients money to generate profits, which relatively increases their capacity for risk, as the investment capital is of depositors. Flannery (2016) criticizes that the problems faced by regulators, in controlling the banking regulations and operations, is persisting, which relatively increases the chance of another financial crisis. Furthermore, the sophisticated products that are sold by the banks to the customers have relevant knowledge gap, which relatively favors the bank. Measure was a relatively scene during the financial crisis, when the faulty CDOs were transferred from banks to investors without the prior knowledge. Besides, the externalities make banking a very sensitive business, as a failure of bank would eventually affect the whole economy due to its operations tangled all around the economy. These are the main reasons behind the restrictions that need to import on banking before t he conduct adequate business in the economy (Berg and Kaserer 2015). The current propositions of capital regulations that have been imposed on banks have adequately restricted them to conduct risky business. Implementation of Basel II and Basel III Accord has relatively regulated the banking system while imposing different restrictions on them to conduct business. On the other hand, Khan, M.S., Scheule and Wu (2017) criticizes that potential negative ramification can be conducted if restrictions on the Banking Regulation increases, as it might directly transfer into a regulated Shadow banking system. This regulated Shadow banking system would eventually hamper the economic condition and increase the operations in black market. Therefore, it could be indicated that the current capital regulations that is imposed on operations of Banks is relatively adequate as it helps in reducing the additional risk that might be accumulated by banks (Baker and Wurgler 2015). The overall implementation of macro prudential regulations that is conducted on banks relatively increases the restrictions of activities that need to be ignored by the banks. Moreover, the restrictions or preventions that are imposed on banks are a measure that is conducted on a day-to-day control basis for resolving any kind of crisis, which might incur in future. Additionally, the activity restrictions are conducted where the authorities directly limit The Financial Institutions actions that could be taken by them. The overall Glass Steagall Act listed in 1933 mainly sliced the investment banks and commercial banks, which helped in segregating the operations of the bank and the capability to lend to an individual borrow. the restrictions on the lending process relatively post the banks to not increase the amount of loan more than 10% of the banks overall assets for an individual borrower. Acharya and Steffen (2015) argued that the overall increment in regulations has mainly reduce d the operation capability of banks, while the risk involved in investments is still high, which might in turn hamper depositors money. This restriction relatively allowed the banks to reduce the overall risk from investment is restricting the loan amount for an individual investor. Likewise, restrictions imposed by the capitol regulators are only on risk that can be accumulated by banks for conducting operations. The restrictions of how much are just a bank antique is conducted by limiting the advantage of the particular Bank. In addition, banks for reducing the overall risk and advantage from operations needs to increase higher capital accumulation (Bougatef and Mgadmi 2016). The capital regulations have mainly indicated the criteria for capital that need to be implemented by banks, where changes in capital need to be conducted for improving its protection. Moreover, the restrictions on banks relatively allow the creditors protection in case the bank default and is not able to provide the overall loan amount. This restriction directly changes the overall perspective of banks in conducting business, which in Limit their capability to conduct business according to that its attributes. After evaluating the capital regulations restrictions on the operations of banks could be identified, this is conducted with the help of Basel II and Basel III accord (Gersbach and Rochet 2017). The restrictions are mainly based on the overall return and risk attribute of the capital regulations, which relatively reduces the overall capability of the banks to minimize risk from operations. The capital regulations are only imposed on banks for regulating their operations accord ing to the measures, which might help in reducing the accumulation of excessive systematic risk within its operations. The restrictions relatively reduce the advantage condition of banks while conducting the business, which helps in safeguarding the overall depositors money, which is used by banks in conducting business. The legislation that is currently present relatively allows banks to use depositors money for conducting business without the consequence of loss. However, the restrictions of capital regulations relatively minimize the chance of loss that might in curve by the banks due to gas stagnation. The measures depicted in Basel III relatively increase the minimum requirements of capital that needs to be present within the operations of bank to conduct smooth operations (Gambacorta and Shin 2016). Therefore, the restrictions conducted on bank has a relatively reduced their overall operations,which reduces financial operations of banks. The restrictions are mainly based on the operations which increases risk attributes of the bank, which in turn helps in securing the depositors money. Moreover, the restrictions depicted by regulations mainly decline the overall operations such as providing loans to individuals and groups. This restriction relevantly reduces the capability of bank for issuing the entire loan to one individual (Faccio, Marchica, and Mura 2016). Furthermore, the preposition of increasing the relevant restriction on the operations of bank is conducted, where the minimum Capital requirement increased every year to reduce the substantial risk involved in the banking system. Besides, the input of capital conversion buffer has relatively helped in maintaining the level of adequate capital within the banking system. The minimum Tier 1 capital required for the operations has a relatively increased over the period, which restricts banks to conduct the business. The minimum total Capital requirement has also increased with the minimum common equity that needs to be maintained by banks in their financial records. This restrictions and Minimum requirements that is imposed on banks buy capital regulations has a relatively reduce the capability of bank to conduct operations (Hugonnier and Morellec 2017). Analyse the effect of capital regulation has had on lending in the post global crisis era and banking regulations countercyclical: The relevant evaluation of the capital regulations on lending process of banking sector could be identified by evaluating the post and pre-lending conditions of banks. Before the financial crisis, the overall lending process of banks was relatively different, as their focus was to maximize their profits from investment. The banks would eventually provide loans to everyone whoever would approach them for a particular loan without collateral or income proof. This was mainly conducted to initiate loan with higher interest rate, which could provide rising profits for the banking system. However, the lending process had relatively different types of flowers, which was identified after the financial crisis. In this context, Schepens (2016) stated that banks provided bad loans to individuals and accumulated the loans on a particular Bond known as CDOs, which led to the decline of image of financial sectors all around the world. The valuation of bonds was relatively conducted based on credit ratings, which was always high regardless of risk and return attributes of the instrument. On the other hand, Bessis (2015) argued that banks due to the availability of capital from the market were conducting unethical measure to increase the returns from investment by transferring the loans from them to the investors. However, the current lending process is mainly restricted by the capital regulations imposed on banks, which substantially reduces the risk from Investments. The restrictions on the lending process have relatively increased with background checks and thorough income tax of borrowers is conducted before issuing loans. This measure was relatively imposed on the banking system after the financial crisis, which relatively helped in improving the current financial position of banks. However, the banks previously would never check the actual background and income proof of the individuals getting the loans. On the contrary, Paligorova and Santos (2017) argued that banks were able to manipulate the risk attributes due to the lack of adequate regulations and monitoring conducted on their operations. Therefore, the current banking system mainly neglects all the measures that were taken pre-financial crisis, which reduces the overall risk attributes of the operations conducted by banks. After the financial crisis Basel accord was mainly changed and updated to Basel III, which relevantly has three main pillars such as minimum Capital requirement, risk management supervision, and market discipline (Nguyen 2014). These three pillars mainly help in evaluating the Minimum Requirements That needs to be followed by banks before initiating the learning process. This relatively minimizes the capability of the banks in issuing loans to borrow without conducting adequate research and evaluation. With implementation of the three pillars, there are different attributes of Basel III, which needs to be followed by banks such as capital base, risk coverage, advantage ratio, and capital buffers. With implementation of above attributes, the oral bank is relatively restricted to conduct adequate evaluation before providing loans to the borrower. Moreover, the lending supervision act relatively provides Basel III to force capital requirements on banks, which helps in reducing the exce ssive Risk that could be taken by banking institutions (Mollah et al. 2017). Moreover, the capital regulations authority, which could help in improving the risk, has changed the lending process that was used by banks before the financial crisis and return attributes of the banking sector. Currently banks need adequate proof from the borrower regarding the income and property that is we mortgage for the loan. In addition, the credit ratings of borrowers are also evaluated before providing them any kind of loan, as it helps in identifying the capability to return the borrowed money. Furthermore, the implementation of adequate measure conducted by capital regulator's eventually help improve the banking sector and reduce the negative impact of systematic risk (Mankai and Belgacem 2016). With the lending process, the overall conversion of loans from banks to investors is also regulated by the capital activities. previously the banks for conducting unethical measures by ranking B+ bonds as AAA and selling them to investors. The regulations after the financial crisis has a relatively frequent the bond valuation system, which is been used to evaluate the mortgage bonds in the current era. Moreover, the banks are not able to convert all its loans to Bond and transfer them to potential investors. This restrictions on transfer of loans has a relatively restricted the lending process of banks, as after providing the loans the bank needs to hold them on books and not transfer them in the capital market (Efing et al. 2015). Bushman, Hendricks and Williams (2016) argued that the overall financial banks were regulated to minimize the risk that they could undertake from operations, which might hamper the actual depositorys money. In addition, the Basel III accord mainly helps in reducing the overall risk from investment, which could be generated by banks after the financial crisis. The current banking regulations are also not countercyclical, as the overall countercyclical buffer regime is introduced in Basel III. This buffer regime is mainly introduced to counter the overall pro-cyclical measures, which is conducted by banks during a favorable economic condition. During the economic boom banks, tend to provide loans to individuals for increasing their profits, whereas the lack of good borrowers relatively increases their thirst for providing loans to anyone. This increases the risk attributes of the banking system, which was previously conducted before the financial crisis. The banks were trying to provide loans to individuals with no credibility based on property (Waemustafa and Sukri 2015). This increases the chance of pro-cyclical, which relatively increases the risk of operations that is conducted by banks. However, in Basel III countercyclical buffer regime directly allows the banks to retain adequate profits in their business for improving their financia l stability. The overall measure has a relatively increased over the period after its introduction in 2016. The banks are mainly forced to retain decent share of profit and built-up reserves for reducing the negative impact from any financial crisis. Plantin (2014) criticizes that the reduction in banks capability to provide loans would eventually hamper the economic condition of the country, where businesses would not get adequate support from banks to conduct their operations. Conclusion: The oral assessment was mainly conducted to identify the capital regulations, which was imposed on banking after the financial crisis. There were different levels of changes and evolution witnessed within the capital regulations, which help in reducing the overall risk attributes of banks. Moreover, the capital regulations measures that were taken to control the risk attributes of banks also restricted them to conduct business freely. These restrictions relatively reduced the capability of banks to increase the returns from investment, as higher risk resulted in higher returns. The aim of capital regulations was to understand the banking structure and lay down the relevant rules to restrict the risk-taking capability of banks. Besides, the analysis of continuous restrictions on banking operations and risk is evaluated in the assessment. This analysis helps in identifying the current restrictions that is implemented by Basel III on the operations of banks to reduce the risk from investment. The restrictions is a relatively reducing the capability of banks to continue with its operations freely, while it improves the core operational capability of the banking system. Relevant evaluation of capital regulations on lending process of banks after the Global crisis is evaluated, which is relatively helps in understanding the current capability of banks in issuing loans. The regulations have relatively restricted the lending conditions of banks, while reducing their capability to conduct business. The restrictions on the lending process of banks are relatively conducted after evaluating the pre-Global crisis condition in which they issued loans to anybody with or without credentials. Therefore, the current Regulations relatively help in reducing the risk of banking system, while securing the financial sector of the country. Reference and Bibliography: Acharya, V.V. and Steffen, S., 2015. The greatest carry trade ever? Understanding eurozone bank risks.Journal of Financial Economics,115(2), pp.215-236. Baker, M. and Wurgler, J., 2015. Do strict capital requirements raise the cost of capital? Bank regulation, capital structure, and the low-risk anomaly.American Economic Review,105(5), pp.315-20. Begenau, J., 2016. Capital requirements, risk choice, and liquidity provision in a business cycle model. Behn, M., Haselmann, R. and Wachtel, P., 2016. Procyclical capital regulation and lending.The Journal of Finance,71(2), pp.919-956. Berg, T. and Kaserer, C., 2015. Does contingent capital induce excessive risk-taking?.Journal of Financial intermediation,24(3), pp.356-385. Berger, A.N., Bouwman, C.H., Kick, T. and Schaeck, K., 2016. Bank liquidity creation following regulatory interventions and capital support.Journal of Financial Intermediation,26, pp.115-141. Berger, A.N., Kick, T. and Schaeck, K., 2014. Executive board composition and bank risk taking.Journal of Corporate Finance,28, pp.48-65. Bessis, J., 2015.Risk management in banking. John Wiley Sons. Bougatef, K. and Mgadmi, N., 2016. The impact of prudential regulation on bank capital and risk-taking: The case of MENA countries.The Spanish Review of Financial Economics,14(2), pp.51-56. Bruno, V. and Shin, H.S., 2015. Capital flows and the risk-taking channel of monetary policy.Journal of Monetary Economics,71, pp.119-132. Bushman, R.M., Hendricks, B.E. and Williams, C.D., 2016. Bank Competition: Measurement, Decision?Making, and Risk?Taking.Journal of Accounting Research,54(3), pp.777-826. Dell?Ariccia, G., Laeven, L. and Marquez, R., 2014. Real interest rates, leverage, and bank risk-taking.Journal of Economic Theory,149, pp.65-99. Dell'Ariccia, G., Laeven, L. and Suarez, G.A., 2017. Bank Leverage and Monetary Policy's Risk?Taking Channel: Evidence from the United States.the Journal of Finance,72(2), pp.613-654. Efing, M., Hau, H., Kampktter, P. and Steinbrecher, J., 2015. Incentive pay and bank risk-taking: Evidence from Austrian, German, and Swiss banks.Journal of International Economics,96, pp.S123-S140. Faccio, M., Marchica, M.T. and Mura, R., 2016. CEO gender, corporate risk-taking, and the efficiency of capital allocation.Journal of Corporate Finance,39, pp.193-209. Flannery, M.J., 2016. Stabilizing large financial institutions with contingent capital certificates.Quarterly Journal of Finance,6(02), p.1650006. Gambacorta, L. and Shin, H.S., 2016. Why bank capital matters for monetary policy.Journal of Financial Intermediation. Gersbach, H. and Rochet, J.C., 2017. Capital regulation and credit fluctuations.Journal of Monetary Economics,90, pp.113-124. Hilscher, J. and Raviv, A., 2014. Bank stability and market discipline: The effect of contingent capital on risk taking and default probability.Journal of Corporate Finance,29, pp.542-560. Hugonnier, J. and Morellec, E., 2017. Bank capital, liquid reserves, and insolvency risk.Journal of Financial Economics,125(2), pp.266-285. Jimnez, G., Ongena, S., Peydr, J.L. and Saurina, J., 2014. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy: What Do Twenty?Three Million Bank Loans Say About the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?Taking?.Econometrica,82(2), pp.463-505. Jimnez, G., Ongena, S., Peydr, J.L. and Saurina, J., 2017. Macroprudential policy, countercyclical bank capital buffers, and credit supply: evidence from the Spanish dynamic provisioning experiments.Journal of Political Economy,125(6), pp.2126-2177. Khan, M.S., Scheule, H. and Wu, E., 2017. Funding liquidity and bank risk taking.Journal of Banking Finance,82, pp.203-216. Laeven, L., Ratnovski, L. and Tong, H., 2016. Bank size, capital, and systemic risk: Some international evidence.Journal of Banking Finance,69, pp.S25-S34. Manka, S. and Belgacem, A., 2016. Interactions between risk taking, capital, and reinsurance for propertyliability insurance firms.Journal of risk and insurance,83(4), pp.1007-1043. Mollah, S., Hassan, M.K., Al Farooque, O. and Mobarek, A., 2017. The governance, risk-taking, and performance of Islamic banks.Journal of financial services research,51(2), pp.195-219. Nguyen, T., 2014. Bank capital requirements: A quantitative analysis. Paligorova, T. and Santos, J.A., 2017. Monetary policy and bank risk-taking: Evidence from the corporate loan market.Journal of Financial Intermediation,30, pp.35-49. Plantin, G., 2014. Shadow banking and bank capital regulation. The Review of Financial Studies, 28(1), pp.146-175. Schepens, G., 2016. Taxes and bank capital structure.Journal of Financial Economics,120(3), pp.585-600. Tanda, A., 2015. The effects of bank regulation on the relationship between capital and risk.Comparative Economic Studies,57(1), pp.31-54. Waemustafa, W. and Sukri, S., 2015. Bank specific and macroeconomics dynamic determinants of credit risk in Islamic banks and conventional banks.International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues,5(2).
Saturday, March 7, 2020
WOMEN LIFE IN ANCIENT TIMES essays From the earliest years of ancient times, womens status were defined by their relationship to men. A woman was in second place to the man never the first. Since early historical times, women have been considered not only intellectually inferior to men but also a major source of temptation and evil. Early Roman law described women as children, forever inferior to men. The double standard certainly involves more than biology; it is also a product of the historical domination of women by men. In ancient western civilizations, cultures like Romans; the status of women were clearly defined as inferior to men either through script law, or custom that is understood and obeyed by everyone in these cultures. Rome was founded as a patriarchal society, women were the property of their fathers later their husbands. However, in early Christian culture women are held in higher regard than the previous two cultures mainly because of Jesus and Paul. Jesus teaches equality, but Paul spread his messa ge and popularised Christianity. In ancient Greece, women were not equally treated, and men were more important and the female less essential; the male is the ruler and female is the subject. The Greek word for woman, gyne was also their word for wife. No differentiation was made between the two, which leads one to be live that, the Greeks assumed a womans main role was to be a wife. The law of the Greeks makes it intelligible that, the function of a woman was the obligation to bear children, especially male children who would preserved the family line(Spielvogel 79). This shows proof that the Greek world was male dominated and women had little say in their daily life and activities. A woman of these times could not be entrusted to handle her own private affairs, or support her self. Women were under the guidance and instruction of a man at all times, if it were their husbands, father or another male ...
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Corporate Compliance Plan Paper - Essay Example These risks include financial malpractice, product liability amongst others. This is the reason why this company needs a control plan to ensure that it has sound business objectives and can manage its risks effectively and in accordance with the laws. This document is going to describe the control plan of Riordan Manufacturing Company. The control plan is in line with the principles that were identified by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The control components that Riordan will use are also included in this control plan and are in accordance with the ones identified by the above commission. A company of RiordanÃ¢â¬â¢s status is bound to experience enterprise risks of varying magnitude, and that is the reason that the enterprise risk management plan of this company will be provided. It is important to identify the roles that will be played by various personnel in the company as far as the implementation of this control plan is concerned. These responsibilities will be identified. The limitations and weaknesses of enterprise risk management will also be included in the paper. A control plan has to take into consideration the enterprise risk management that is particular to that company. These are the methods and processes that are employed by any organization in order to deal with risks that are detrimental to the achievement of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives and goals (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission [COSO], 2004). Not only does the company use these methods to manage the risks particular to it, but it also uses it to take advantage of opportunities that avail themselves to it. This is because every risk has the potential of hindering the achievement of a particular goal or presenting an opportunity to the company. The process of risk management is adopted by the directors of the company. It is used by